Sri Lanka is located in the Indian Ocean, just south of India. It is separated from India by the Palk Strait, which is a 30 mile stretch of water.

The land

The island has a land area of approximately 25,332 square miles. Its extreme height from north to south (from Point Pedro, which is the northern-most point, to Devundara, which is the southern-most point) is 271 miles and its extreme width from east to west is 140 miles.

The country is divided into two main portions based on elevation: The Low Country and the Hill Country. The Hill Country occupies about one-fifth of the entire land area.


A large part of Sri Lanka consists of crystalline rock, known as 'gneiss'. Coral beds and sand dunes are found around the edges of the island. Also present are bands of white crystalline limestone.

The crystalline rocks often contain an abundance of minerals. Some of these minerals are given below:

Rivers and waterfalls

Sri Lanka has a large number of rivers. Some of these are listed below:

The island also has quite a few waterfalls in the hill country. Here are the names of some of the chief waterfalls in Sri Lanka:


Sri Lanka does not have four seasons. Its weather is centred around two monsoons, one from May to August (the south-west monsoon) and the other from November to February (the north east monsoon).


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